Author, Parks Historian, Public Speaker

The Abuse of Parks is the Abuse of Society

I have sat for long enough and read the reports, seen the pictures, headlines, tweets, Facebook updates and had conversations with my own team and colleagues. I have spoken at length with colleagues across the country who are managing parks in Manchester, Nottingham, Rugby, Salford, Merseyside, Bournemouth, Newcastle, in fact UK wide. Litter, mountains of the stuff, tonnes of it being dropped and dumped in our parks and green spaces. In Rugby's parks, there are 10 tonnes of extra litter being removed from their parks per day. Similar in Salford's Parks where tonnes of rubbish have almost double compared to last year. We see reports of people 'shitting' in McDonald's Burger boxes and leaving then in parks and on beaches for council staff to remove. Thousand's of gas canisters of Nitrous Oxide appearing in parks and left and these are not even illegal. Reports that the Met Police can no longer control our streets, let alone parks. So is this a symptom just of coming out of lockdown? Is it a change in societal behaviour? Is it partly a result of austerity? few police officers and parks staff? Or that pubs and clubs, bars, cinemas are all still closed? What makes a human being think it is acceptable to take a dump in a McDonald's throwaway big mac box and leave it for some poor soul to remove? Matthew Wright on TV called them 'pigs' and was condemned by many for saying such a thing. But pigs would not even behave like this. They are worse than pigs. It is feral behaviour with no limits. These people do not care. We have seen ugly scenes on our streets as part of Black Lives Matters protests, rioting, vandalism, spitting at police officers. Parks staff have been spat at and abused. 

I took a call from a Guardian reporter today who was doing a feature on litter in parks and wanted my views as Chair of the Parks Management Forum. Chaos, its chaos out there, and parks teams are struggling to cope with it after years of austerity and parks maintenance budgets stripped to the bone. Many proffer solutions: better signage, CCTV, Fixed Penalty Notices, Council's need to do a better job (Please really???), the police need to take action, more bins. So why are we experiencing such behaviour and what is the answer? We live in a society that is now largely divisive, confrontational, with leaders that have spouted bile and hatred, from Nigel Farage, Boris Johnson, Jeremy Corbyn, Donald Trump, stirring up society, pulling communities apart. If we don't respect our leaders, then we become dysfunctional, out of control, without any boundaries as to what is acceptable. Bad behaviour breeds bad behaviour. And behaviour has been shocking, at times disgusting. Society is protected by our public services and public services have been stripped bare. Local Authorities, already struggling now have to cope with the aftermath of Covid-19. We rely on our public services for our basic needs - healthcare, safety, protection, wellbeing, cleanliness, housing, social care to providing recreational facilities that support all these. Yet these have been decimated so when we start to lose control, the spiral of decline increases. So the answers?

  • We need to focus on communities, and communities need a robust public sector to support and engage with them. Public services are the fabric of our society;
  • We need strong leadership at all levels - in our communities, in our Town Halls, in our Government, in our schools and colleges and examples of strong leadership must be at the highest level - New Zealand  anyone? Jacinda is an inspiration. 
  • We need to set examples, and we need to make sure there is a deterrent for such behaviour, stiff fines for littering, and I mean stiff, and we need law enforcement that can deliver such deterrents. 
  • We need to focus on the things that matter, our health, our wellbeing, our communities and start relying on people power rather than accepting the bad behaviour of others as acceptable because it isn't. This has to come from Government. 
  • We need to fix society and it has to come from within and we need to do it now. 

This is no easy fix in the current climate, but we can certainly start with strong leadership and setting better examples for all. 


Why Parks Matter...

In 2016, I published ‘Great British Parks: A Celebration’ which very much started out as a straightforward celebration of Great British Parks which was followed in 2017 by ‘Parkitecture – Buildings and Monuments of Public Parks’. Both books recognised the value of one of our finest institutions – the public park. I have worked in parks for over 30 years, managing, developing, improving and restoring them. They are my passion. With the current pandemic affecting us globally, there has been an incredible resurgence in the value of public parks, with politicians spouting walks in your local park, fresh air as being good for us, provided we socially distance ourselves (naturally) and the nation has embraced them once again. Government has ordered councils to keep parks open, allowing opportunities for exercise, and the value they are to our health and well-being. Wellness is now oft quoted. Walks in my local park here in Leighton Buzzard have seen more people out walking, running, playing frisbee, children on bikes, and this is despite the play area being closed and the gyms out of action. So are we valuing parks once again? We need to look back at history first as to when we acquired these wonderful public utilities, open to all, yet over the decades have been much maligned, neglected, abused, restored and then once again neglected. We need to break the boom, bust, boom, bust cycle and once and for all, value our parks and green spaces like never before. And it is never so relevant than this week – World Parks Week.

Parks were born out of the need to improve the quality of people’s lives as the Industrial Revolution took its hold. 100 years later, this was sadly abandoned as we embraced ‘the cost of providing’ rather than the ‘benefits (note the plural) of providing’, only to rediscover this by the end of the twentieth century. Thanks to successive studies and reports, surveys, analysis, continued lobbying, many parks have been rescued from virtual obscurity, primarily funded by the National Lottery, including the wonderful Avenham & Miller parks in Preston; Birkenhead Park on the Wirrall; Victoria Park, London; Heaton Park, Manchester; Leazes Park, Newcastle; Abbey Park, Leicester and many many more. The figure from the National Lottery Heritage Fund now exceeds £1 billion allocated to rescuing our most important public parks. The irony is perhaps wrapped up in history itself – history tells us that parks are good for us. So is this lottery funded parks renaissance really over? In 2014, the Heritage Lottery Fund published a report on the condition of parks in the UK called ‘State of UK Public Parks - Research Report to the Heritage Lottery Fund June 2014’ and was followed up by a similar report in 2016. The picture was bleak and none more so apparent with the fate of many parks, being sold off, developed, features being closed such as in Ryelands Park in Lancaster, with the ultimate destruction of its iconic bandstand in June 2017.

Way back in in 2006 CABE Space highlighted the challenge was to ensure the ‘long-term sustainability of these improvements in the conditions of urban green spaces across the country. In many cases, this required the identification of alternative sources of revenue and capital funding’. Yet funding for public parks and urban green spaces was significantly reduced between 1979 and 2000, losing an estimated £1.3 billion in total. A timely report published in January 2013 by the International Federation of Parks and Recreation Administration (Ifpra) concluded that there is evidence for a range of benefits of urban parks and that there is sound scientific evidence that parks contribute to human and social wellbeing (wellness?). Specifically, urban planners should focus on high quality parks in such areas, where the case is currently that parks are scarce and poorly maintained. Given the strong evidence for parks as promoting physical activity and reducing obesity (parkruns are surely the best example of this), more thoughts should be given to how parks are planned and established with good opportunities and amenities for exerting varied kinds of physical activity, such as walking and biking (exactly what politicians are telling us to do today but it takes a global pandemic for them to get this!). In 2014, Dr Katy Layton-Jones published her final report for English Heritage on Urban Parks, Designed Landscapes and Open Spaces. It referred to the remission of the period of decline for Britain’s parks as a result of the Heritage Lottery Fund’s Urban Parks Programme and its successor the ‘Parks for People’ scheme. But it warns of an uncertain future in terms not only of funding and maintenance, but also of ownership, and in some cases, existence. The economic crisis of 2007 marked a change in mood and expectation among many green space professionals. In the 2010-11 financial year, local authorities were forced to implement significant savings. Local authority budget cuts (average 28 per cent over a three-year period, and in some cases up to 90%), brought an abrupt halt to many ambitions for significant capital investment in public green space across the country. The requirement to demonstrate financial sustainability still places considerable economic pressure on local authorities. It is getting worse. Local authorities no longer have any funding from central government since the withdrawal of the annual Revenue Support Grant. Basically, it’s now up to councils to foot all the bills.

So the future of UK public parks in 2016 was at a crossroads and today, 2020, it now faces an even greater challenge with future austerity and a deep recession looming. ‘The State of UK Public Parks 2014 - Renaissance to risk’ and its follow up in 2016 perhaps gave the clearest picture. They reported that maintenance budgets were being reduced, capital was less available for improvements, park facilities were becoming more expensive to use, management and maintenance skills were being lost, and some parks and green spaces were being sold or transferred to others to maintain. This is despite over 2.6 billion estimated visits made to the UK’s parks each year. Over 70% of park managers have recorded increased visitor numbers to their principal parks between 2013-14. Yet 86% of park managers report cuts to revenue budgets since 2010 and they expect the trend to continue for the next few years and beyond. Just as worrying is that 71% of households with children under 10 years of age are concerned that reductions in council budgets could have a negative impact on the condition of their local park. This is already having an impact with a number of local authorities who have already seen the positive result of ‘one-off’ lottery investments, struggling to sustain the quality of the once restored landscape. The picture becomes even more bleak.

Great Britain has been a nation of park builders since the advent of the Industrial Revolution. J.C. Loudon writing in the Gardener’s Magazine in 1829, campaigned for public parks as ‘Breathing Places’ for towns and cities. 176 years later, The Times (13/11/15) reports that ‘its mad to let Britain’s glorious heritage of urban parks disappear’. Speaking at the Paxton 150 conference in 2015, parks historian David Lambert echoed this. ‘What Paxton and his fellow Victorians thought was bleedin’ obvious – that the health, social and recreational benefits of parks far outweigh the costs of maintaining them. Three words that sum up the absolute value of parks and green spaces – health, social and recreational. The Covid19 pandemic has demonstrated the value of parks to us all. For those of us that have been the guardian of them for decades, we know this, and the great British public know this. Local authorities and the few park managers that remain over the last 20 years have been innovative, creative, dogmatic and pragmatic when it comes to their parks and green spaces. But there is now one lesson that government must recognize – parks matter, no matter what. We know there is a recession coming and times will be hard, but if there is one institution that matters and has positive benefits on everybody, it is the local park. Perhaps now is the time to cease the constant boom bust cycle we have tolerated since the Victorians gave us these social assets. Ruskin has been quoted countless times, but there is no better conclusion in my view that:-

‘The measure of any great civilization is in its cities, and the measure of a city's greatness is to be found in the quality of its public spaces, its parks and squares’. Or perhaps the more recent quote from David Lambert above, that it’s ‘bleedin’ obvious’. “

Paul Rabbitts FRSA FLI

Head of Parks, Heritage & Culture

Watford Borough Council 


Parks Inquiry? History repeated

Posted on February 15, 2017 at 7:30 PM

The Public Parks Inquiry is completed. 

So, after waiting months, an incredible amount of submissions on the future of parks submitted to DCLG, and then the anticipation of something? What would be that something?  Its conclusion was as follows:-

The significant interest in, and the overwhelming response to, our inquiry is a clear indication of just how strongly people feel about their local parks, how much they value them, and how important it is that action is taken to safeguard and secure the future of England’s parks and green spaces. Our witnesses—individuals, friends groups, local authorities, and other bodies—describe parks as being at a tipping point. As Cllr Trickett of Birmingham City Council told us: “We have been innovative and we have looked at alternatives, but the cuts are in very great danger of tilting the balance too far”.265 If action is taken, and appropriate priority given to parks, we do not believe it is too late to prevent a period of decline. However, if the value of parks and their potential contribution are not recognised, then the consequences could be severe for some of the most important policy agendas facing our communities today. 136.There is, clearly, no ‘one size fits all’ solution. Responsibility for parks lies primarily with local authorities. We believe that local authorities are best placed to make decisions which are appropriate for their local circumstances. However, within a context of declining local authority budgets, we believe that there is a role for central government to play in providing vision, leadership and coordination, facilitating the sharing of lessons learned and best practice, and ensuring that the role of parks, their contribution, and their function as just one element of our wider green infrastructure networks, is recognised.

The findings have told us nothing new at all.  Bullet points that I picked up on:-

We recognise that parks have traditionally been seen as financial liabilities for local authorities, and understand that assessing the value of parks to their communities in wider terms can be complex. Parks are not financial liabilities. They are financial assets, they are community assets and in comparison to most other services provided by Local Authorities they are incredibly cheap to provide. Cost per user is pence in comparison to the delivery of a waste service or a leisure centre. 

In the planning and management of parks, local authorities must engage effectively in dialogue with their communities to assess and understand their needs, and to explain the decisions which they take. We have been doing this for the last 20 years since the advent of Green Flag - not even mentioned in the summary or conclusions??? Talk about teaching us to suck eggs! 

We believe that addressing the challenges which face the parks sector in a way which secures a sustainable future for England’s parks may require fundamental service transformation, which takes into account the wider value and benefits which parks deliver, beyond their amenity and leisure value. We have received a wide range of suggestions for alternative funding sources for parks, and examples of different approaches to parks management. A recent report by Dr Katy Layton Jones summarised that despit there being attempts at finding alternative funding models such as Trusts, ALMO's, community asset transfers etc, the core method in funding parks is in fact the tried and tested method - a local authority model with adequate funding to provide a decent quality service. Rethinking Parks by Nesta in my humble view really gave us nothing - it scratched the surface and the figures saved were a pittance. The scale of cuts in places in Newcastle and other large authorities are simply abhorrent. Transferring the 'problem' to another organisation such as the National Trust is a bold move. I am not sure its the answer. Nationally it has to be decent funded parks managed by Local Authorities. 

We recognise, in principle, the benefits of designating senior elected members and officials as parks champions with responsibility for highlighting and coordinating the contribution which parks make to the achievement of broader council objectives, and for preparing strategies for their parks and green spaces. We have all done this, BUT a strategy that is not underpinned by investment or funding is not worth the paper it is written on. A Parks Champion in a local authority - tried before - politicians come and go and a good politician can shout about the need for great parks and we have had successive parks ministers allegedly and they have achieved nothing - they come and go. 

We recommend that the Minister issues very clear guidance to local authorities that they should work collaboratively with Health and Wellbeing Boards, and other relevant bodies where appropriate, to prepare and publish joint parks and green space strategies. I like this and I think it is important. Local Authorities now have a role to play in Public Health Agenda and I do think there should be more collaborative work between Health Trusts and Local Authorities - decent parks means decent health, the evidence is overwhelming. My angst here is the NHS is an alleged mess, underfunded and overstretched but if they could be persuaded long term of the savings that would be made by working with parks providers, and allocating 'budget' to preventative health care (quality green spaces, community activators, sport, activities, health works etc), there could be some real inroads made. My hope from the inquiry was this could be something revolutionary. Remember in 1833 with the Select Committee for Public Walks, the reason why we got parks was to improve public health. I hope the minister picks up on this. 

We welcome the steps taken by the parks sector in England to fill the gap left by CABE Space and Greenspace, such as the establishment of the Parks Alliance and the National Federation of Parks and Green Spaces, the Future Parks project led by the National Trust, and the work undertaken as part of Nesta’s Rethinking Parks programme to bring together a database of people and groups with an interest in parks. Are we getting CABE Space back? The government took it off us. I didn't see any reference to the HLF in the conclusions either. I am sure its in the body of the report. Or Green Flag? The Parks Alliance are made up of a small number of volunteers who work in the parks sector. We have APSE but do we have a body representing us? lobbying for us? How we miss ILAM!! 

We believe that early priorities for the group should include: establishing and maintaining an online parks information hub to make it easier for local authorities to find out about what other authorities are doing, to facilitate the sharing of learning and good practice, and to provide signposting to other sources of information or advice; and working with the Local Government Association to develop and implement options for establishing and supporting national or regional park manager forums in England, learning from the approach taken in Scotland. Yes we had that with CABE Space and their work was incredible. That information still exists. 

In my conclusion, the inquiry was comprehensive, it raised our hopes but the outcome is that it has given us nothing. It was reinforced to me tonight with a Facebook update from the Friends of Small Heath Park in Birmingham who are witnessing the wholesale removal of shrub beds in their local park - a historic park for many reasons, because the City Council cannot afford to maintain them. The responses were highly critical of the council yet many if not most are left with some very stark choices.  We have to fight to survive or the work many of us have done over the last 20 years will be undone. One glimmer of light I do have and I frequently cite is that many of our parks are 100 years old or more and whilst like life itself, they ebb and flow, they have survived decades of use and abuse, they have outlived governements, cuts, mismanagement, world wars, riots, vandalism and the majority of them are still with us. History tells us this BUT we should learn from history - it would save so much time, effort and money by so many (or so few of us today). #myparkmatters. 

The Report is here 

Categories: None

Post a Comment


Oops, you forgot something.


The words you entered did not match the given text. Please try again.


Reply yeezy shoes
12:06 AM on October 19, 2021 
I just wanted to make a small message to be able to express gratitude to you for these remarkable tips and hints you are posting here. My incredibly long internet look up has at the end of the day been honored with good quality details to talk about with my family members. I would mention that we readers are undoubtedly blessed to live in a superb community with very many brilliant individuals with great solutions. I feel very much grateful to have come across your web page and look forward to tons of more pleasurable times reading here. Thank you once more for everything.
yeezy shoes
Reply kyrie 5 shoes
12:18 AM on October 19, 2021 
I precisely desired to thank you so much once more. I do not know the things that I would've gone through in the absence of these creative concepts shared by you regarding my problem. It truly was a very difficult condition for me, however , taking note of a new well-written style you solved that took me to jump for contentment. I'm just grateful for the assistance and in addition wish you know what a great job you are providing training many people with the aid of your site. More than likely you haven't come across all of us.
kyrie 5 shoes
Reply jordan 1
12:30 AM on October 19, 2021 
I simply wanted to make a remark so as to express gratitude to you for all the unique ways you are sharing on this site. My rather long internet research has now been paid with good suggestions to go over with my partners. I would express that most of us website visitors actually are very much fortunate to be in a perfect place with so many special people with beneficial tips and hints. I feel truly lucky to have encountered your webpages and look forward to plenty of more exciting times reading here. Thank you once more for all the details.
jordan 1
Reply lebron 18
2:48 AM on October 19, 2021 
I have to show thanks to this writer for rescuing me from such a trouble. As a result of surfing around throughout the search engines and finding strategies which are not productive, I thought my life was well over. Being alive without the presence of strategies to the issues you have fixed all through the blog post is a serious case, and the kind that would have in a wrong way damaged my entire career if I had not discovered your blog. Your main natural talent and kindness in playing with every item was invaluable. I'm not sure what I would've done if I hadn't discovered such a solution like this. I can at this moment look forward to my future. Thank you so much for the reliable and results-oriented help. I will not think twice to endorse your blog to any individual who should have guide on this subject matter.
lebron 18
Reply lebron 18
2:55 AM on October 19, 2021 
My husband and i got joyful Edward managed to conclude his reports through the ideas he made in your blog. It's not at all simplistic just to choose to be giving away strategies the others may have been trying to sell. So we fully understand we have got the blog owner to appreciate because of that. Most of the illustrations you have made, the straightforward website menu, the relationships you aid to create - it's got everything impressive, and it is facilitating our son and our family recognize that the topic is exciting, which is unbelievably vital. Thanks for the whole thing!
lebron 18
Reply yeezy
4:45 AM on October 19, 2021 
I have to express my admiration for your generosity giving support to folks that require help on your area. Your special dedication to passing the message all-around had been pretty valuable and have regularly enabled regular people like me to arrive at their pursuits. Your new useful help and advice entails so much a person like me and further more to my mates. Thanks a ton; from all of us.
Reply offwhite
8:07 AM on October 19, 2021 
My wife and i were now joyful that Peter managed to conclude his web research via the ideas he had from your web site. It is now and again perplexing to simply always be giving out helpful hints that people today have been trying to sell. So we fully understand we now have the writer to be grateful to for that. All the illustrations you've made, the simple website navigation, the friendships your site help to create - it is most terrific, and it is facilitating our son in addition to the family understand that issue is amusing, which is really vital. Thank you for the whole thing!
Reply a bathing ape
9:20 AM on October 19, 2021 
My husband and i felt so thrilled when Peter managed to complete his research from the ideas he obtained in your blog. It's not at all simplistic to simply find yourself releasing concepts most people could have been making money from. We figure out we have the writer to appreciate because of that. All of the explanations you've made, the straightforward web site menu, the friendships you can assist to foster - it's got most terrific, and it's really letting our son and the family know that the idea is interesting, which is certainly seriously mandatory. Many thanks for all the pieces!
a bathing ape
Reply golden goose outlet
10:24 AM on October 19, 2021 
I wish to show my gratitude for your kindness supporting people who really need guidance on this one theme. Your very own commitment to getting the message all through was rather useful and has in most cases encouraged others much like me to realize their objectives. Your new important hints and tips can mean much a person like me and even more to my peers. With thanks; from each one of us.
golden goose outlet
Reply PatrickTRAIT
10:39 AM on October 19, 2021 
url= says...
cialis 20 mg
Reply moncler outlet
10:53 AM on October 19, 2021 
I must get across my respect for your kind-heartedness supporting men who absolutely need help with this one concern. Your personal commitment to passing the message across became exceptionally productive and has continuously permitted those much like me to arrive at their targets. Your amazing invaluable recommendations denotes a lot a person like me and somewhat more to my office workers. Many thanks; from everyone of us.
moncler outlet
Reply kyrie 4
11:49 AM on October 19, 2021 
My spouse and i were satisfied that Chris could finish up his inquiry through the ideas he had from your blog. It's not at all simplistic to just always be offering instructions which often many people might have been making money from. And we all recognize we now have the blog owner to be grateful to because of that. The main explanations you have made, the easy site menu, the relationships your site give support to instill - it's many spectacular, and it is letting our son and our family feel that that subject matter is enjoyable, which is highly fundamental. Thank you for the whole lot!
kyrie 4
Reply supreme clothing
11:51 AM on October 19, 2021 
I precisely needed to thank you very much yet again. I'm not certain the things that I could possibly have carried out in the absence of the actual tactics discussed by you over this problem. It absolutely was a frustrating situation in my view, but observing a new expert fashion you managed it made me to cry with fulfillment. I will be grateful for this advice and even believe you really know what a powerful job you have been getting into training others using your web page. Probably you have never come across all of us.
supreme clothing
Reply supreme outlet
1:09 PM on October 19, 2021 
I just wanted to post a simple remark in order to express gratitude to you for those magnificent tactics you are giving on this site. My extensive internet research has finally been honored with really good details to exchange with my neighbours. I 'd say that most of us readers actually are truly blessed to live in a superb network with very many outstanding professionals with great basics. I feel very much blessed to have seen your web site and look forward to tons of more excellent moments reading here. Thank you again for all the details.
supreme outlet
Reply nike kyrie 5
1:52 PM on October 19, 2021 
Thank you a lot for giving everyone remarkably spectacular opportunity to check tips from this web site. It's always so ideal and as well , packed with a lot of fun for me personally and my office acquaintances to visit your site at a minimum 3 times weekly to learn the latest items you will have. And lastly, I am actually astounded considering the cool things you give. Selected 2 points in this post are undeniably the very best I have ever had.
nike kyrie 5
Reply kobe byrant shoes
1:53 PM on October 19, 2021 
I am just writing to make you be aware of of the perfect discovery my wife's princess found going through your webblog. She learned such a lot of things, which included how it is like to possess a wonderful teaching heart to let certain people just learn selected grueling topics. You actually did more than her desires. Many thanks for displaying the informative, trustworthy, edifying and also cool tips about your topic to Mary.
kobe byrant shoes
Reply yeezy
1:53 PM on October 19, 2021 
I am writing to let you be aware of of the brilliant encounter our girl encountered viewing your blog. She picked up numerous things, with the inclusion of what it's like to have an awesome giving spirit to let many people completely have an understanding of chosen advanced issues. You actually surpassed readers' desires. I appreciate you for displaying the precious, healthy, informative and also unique tips on your topic to Sandra.
Reply jordan 1 off white
1:54 PM on October 19, 2021 
I would like to point out my appreciation for your kind-heartedness supporting people who really want help on this particular field. Your very own commitment to getting the message along was certainly important and has specifically helped employees just like me to get to their ambitions. Your entire warm and friendly tutorial signifies so much a person like me and even further to my mates. Regards; from everyone of us.
jordan 1 off white
Reply stephen curry shoes
2:14 PM on October 19, 2021 
My wife and i felt so satisfied that Raymond managed to finish off his analysis through the entire ideas he made while using the web pages. It's not at all simplistic to just be making a gift of helpful tips which often some others have been making money from. And we acknowledge we have you to be grateful to for that. The type of illustrations you made, the easy web site menu, the relationships you give support to engender - it's many powerful, and it is helping our son and the family recognize that the subject matter is brilliant, and that's unbelievably serious. Thank you for all the pieces!
stephen curry shoes
Reply off white
3:05 PM on October 19, 2021 
I have to express my thanks to this writer for bailing me out of this type of condition. Just after looking out through the the net and getting methods which are not beneficial, I thought my life was gone. Living without the answers to the problems you've sorted out all through your main website is a critical case, and the kind that would have in a negative way damaged my career if I hadn't encountered your site. Your knowledge and kindness in handling all things was crucial. I'm not sure what I would have done if I hadn't come upon such a step like this. I'm able to at this point relish my future. Thank you very much for your expert and amazing help. I won't be reluctant to suggest the blog to any person who should receive direction on this topic.
off white